Tuesday, February 22, 2011

ROME



The Arch of Titus, Rome, commemorating the Roman victory over the Jewish rebellion of 70 AD.



Augustus, the first Emperor of Rome, a statue known as the Augustus Primaporta.




Frieze from the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace) showing members of the Imperial family.




The Pont du Garde, a bridge and an aqueduct, southern France, Roman





Apollodorus of Damascus, Markets of the Forum of Trajan, Rome




The Pantheon, Rome, exterior




The Pantheon, Rome, interior




ROME

SPQR
Augustus
Roman Architecture
--arch
--vault
--dome
--concrete
forum
Trajan's Forum
--Emperor Trajan
--Apollodorus of Damascus
--basilica
------clerestory
The Pantheon
--Emperor Hadrian
--oculus

Read Chapter 9






The End of Pompeii

The city of Pompeii, south of modern Naples, ended suddenly in the year 79 CE in a catastrophic volcanic eruption.  Mount Vesuvius, dormant for centuries, suddenly awoke and exploded, destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, and leaving a massive crater where the mountain once stood.
Unknown thousands of people died in the eruption.  Vesuvius buried Pompeii and the surrounding countryside under 13 to 20 feet of volcanic ash, boulders, and pumice.  The city was so thoroughly buried and the landscape so altered that people forgot where the city was.  Pompeii was not rediscovered until 1599.  Excavations began 1748.
The airless dry volcanic ash preserved a lot of normally perishable items from the city, including the dead.


The ruins of Pompeii today.  After 250 years of excavation, much of the city still lies buried.
Mount Vesuvius rises on the horizon.  The peak on the right is part of the crater rim left by the eruption of 79CE.  Vesuvius was originally a much higher mountain before the 79CE eruption.



A loaf of bread carbonized by the eruption.



Skeletal remains of victims of the eruption left where they were found.




Excavators discovered that many bodies as they decayed left hollows in the hard volcanic ash.  They poured plaster into the hollows and created remarkably vivid casts of people at the moment they died.  It was long thought that victims suffocated under the ash.  Scholars now believe that these victims died suddenly from the intense heat of pyroclastic flows.


The face of a woman at the moment of her death.



A remarkably vivid cast of a child.



A computer animation of what the last day of Pompeii might have looked like.






It was long thought that the people of the nearby city of Herculaneum escaped since no human remains were found in its ruins.  Recent excavations of what were once boathouses on the beach revealed the remains of hundreds of people caught by the eruption as they awaited evacuation.















Tuesday, February 15, 2011

GREECE


GEOMETRIC PERIOD




 Krater in the Metropolitan Museum, Geometric Period, Greece





ARCHAIC PERIOD



Exekias, Achilles and Ajax, Black Figure Vase, Archaic Period




Euphronios, Death of Sarpedon, Red Figure Vase, Archaic Period




The Peplos Kore, Archaic period, Greece





The New York Kouros, Archaic Period, Greece







CLASSICAL PERIOD




The Kritios Youth, Classical Period, Greece

Contrapposto -- bending the knee and shifting the weight onto one leg.





The Riace Warrior, Classical period, Greece, cast in bronze





The Temple of Hera at Paestum, Classical Period, Greece, a Doric order temple



The Temple of Hera at Paestum with the parts labeled (click on the image to enlarge)





A satellite photo of the Temple of Hera at Paestum with the parts labeled (click on the image to enlarge)





The Parthenon, Athens, designed by Iktinos and Kallikrates, Greece, Classical Period





Three Goddesses from the East Pediment of the Parthenon, sculpted by Phidias, Greece, Classical Period







Horsemen from the Ionic Frieze of the Parthenon, sculpted by Phidias, Greece, Classical Period



GREECE

polis
Geometric Period
Archaic Period
--black figure vase painting
--red figure vase painting
--kore
--kouros
Classical Period
--contrapposto
--bronze
Greek Temple Architecture
--peristyle
--naos
--column
----capital
----shaft
--entablature
----frieze
----architrave
--pediment
--Greek Orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
The Parthenon
--Athens
--Athena
--Acropolis
--Persian Wars
--Pericles
--Iktinos & Kallikrates
--Phidias




Donald Duck learns Pythagorean Sacred Geometry

A kids' film from 1959;  Donald Duck very effectively shows us a design principle that began with Pythagoras and the ancient Greeks and still forms the foundation of Western art and design down to the present day.























Tuesday, February 8, 2011

EGYPT




Narmer Palette, front and back, Pre-Dynastic



OLD KINGDOM


Step Pyramid and Tomb Complex of Pharaoh Zoser at Saqqara, designed by Imhotep, Old Kingdom



Great Pyramid of Pharaoh Khufu, Giza, Old Kingdom




The Sphinx, Giza, Old Kingdom




Valley Temple of Pharaoh Khafre, Giza, Old Kingdom




Pharaoh Khafre, from his Valley Temple, Giza, Old Kingdom



Pharaoh Menkaure and his Queen Khamerernebty, Old Kingdom






MIDDLE KINGDOM



Pharaoh Senwosret III




NEW KINGDOM




Pharaoh Hatshepsut, New Kingdom




Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir El Bahri, New Kingdom




Pharaoh Akhenaten with Queen Nefertiti and their Daughters, Amarna Period, New Kingdom




Queen Nefertiti, Amarna Period, New Kingdom




Hypostile Hall from the Temple of Amon at Karnak, New Kingdom




Gold Mummy Mask of Pharaoh Tutankhamun from his tomb in the Valley of the Kings, New Kingdom



EGYPT

The Nile
Old Kingdom
Pharaoh
mastaba tomb
Imhotep
Giza
--Khufu
--Khafre
----Sphinx
----Valley Temple
--Menkaure
hieroglyphic writing
relief sculpture
Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom
Hatsheput
Amarna
--Akhenaten
--Nefertiti
Karnak
Valley of the Kings
Tutankhamun



Read Chapter 5

Wednesday, February 2, 2011

Prehistoric Art



"Venus" of Willendorf, Prehistoric Art, Paleolithic Period




Lionesses, painting from the Chauvet Cave, Southern France, Prehistoric Art, Paleolithic Period





Bulls and Horses, painting from Lascaux Cave, Southern France, Prehistoric Art, Paleolithic Period





Stonehenge, England, Prehistoric Art, Neolithic Period


PREHISTORIC ART

Paleolithic
thought
imagination
symbol
content
form
aesthetics
Neolithic
Stonehenge
--post and lintel




Summer solstice sunrise at Stonehenge.



... and winter solstice at Stonehenge. Looks like fun.