Wednesday, March 30, 2011

The Renaissance


Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Abraham, Competition Panel, Italian Renaissance




Filippo Brunelleschi, Sacrifice of Abraham, Competition Panel, Italian Renaissance








Florence Cathedral, dome designed and built by Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian Renaissance





Filippo Brunelleschi, The Pazzi Chapel, Florence, The Italian Renaissance







Linear Perspective; print by Vredeman de Vries






Linear Perspective: Masaccio, The Trinity, Italian Renaissance







Masaccio, The Tribute Money from the Brancacci Chapel, Italian Renaissance





Lorenzo Ghiberti, Second set of doors for the Florence Baptistery, "The Gates of Paradise," Italian Renaissance





Donatello, St. George, Italian Renaissance






Donatello, David, the first free-standing nude sculpture since ancient times, Italian Renaissance.






Jan Van Eyck, The Arnolfini Betrothal, Flemish Renaissance, an oil painting.
 





Rogier Van Der Weyden, Descent from the Cross, Flemish Renaissance, oil painting





Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, Italian Renaissance



THE RENAISSANCE

Florence
Lorenzo Ghiberti
--competition panels
Filippo Brunelleschi
--Dome of the Cathedral of Florence
--linear perspective
-----horizon
-----vanishing point
-----orthogonal
International Gothic
egg tempera painting
Masaccio
--Brancacci Chapel
Donatello
Flemish Painting
--Flanders
--oil painting
--Jan Van Eyck
----symbolic realism
--Rogier Van Der Weyden
Botticelli

read Chapter 15


Easter in Florence

The Scoppio del Carro del Fuocco, "Explosion of the Cart of Fire."
Every Easter, the Florentines drag out an enormous 4 story high cart called the Brindellone ("The Big Old Wreck"), hitch it up to a team of 4 white oxen and parade it through the streets of the city stopping in front of the Cathedral in time for Easter Mass. After the choir sings the Gloria of the Mass, a deacon takes a candle and lights it from the Paschal candle, and then ... well, watch what happens.








From the 2013 Scoppio del Carro,







The Florentines have been doing this ceremony in its present form complete with fireworks in church for almost 600 years. They've been doing some form of this Easter ritual for almost a thousand years. Remarkably, they have not yet burned down the Cathedral.

Saturday, March 26, 2011

Proto Renaissance




Giotto, The Arrest of Christ, fresco painting from the Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy







Giotto, The Pieta, fresco painting from the Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy





Ambrogio Lorenzetti, The Effects of Good Government, fresco painting from the city council chamber of the City of Siena, Italy





Orcagna, Strozzi Altarpiece, in the Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy





PROTO RENAISSANCE

Saint Francis of Assisi
humanism
Franciscans
Giotto
--Arena Chapel
--Enrico Scrovegni
--fresco
--chiaroscuro
The Black Death

Read Chapter 14



The Palio in Siena

The Palio is a pageant and horse race held twice a year in the city of Siena in Italy, first on July 2nd and then again every August 15th. The Palio goes back over 700 years. It began as a dedication to the Virgin Mary. The race is one of the fastest and most violent horse races in the world. Ten horses and riders run three laps around the main square of the city, a space built on a hillside that is not level and paved with cobblestones. Riders and horses are almost always injured in the race, and there have been deaths in past years.

But, it is much more than a race. Siena is divided into 17 districts or contrade. Each contrada races a horse, and its honor and prestige ride with the horse. People become very emotionally involved in the race, and rivalries between contrade can run very high for weeks. Teenagers chase each other with water balloons, try to out sing each other, and sometimes fist fights break out.

The Palio begins with each race horse blessed by the parish priest in the morning. The contrada flags are all blessed in the Cathedral. The flags are carried, waved, and juggled by s'bandieri, who train for the Palio for weeks. They march and perform in the pageant that begins the Palio with costumes that harken back to the time when Siena was an independent city state.
The seven contrade that were excluded from the race the previous year are automatically enrolled for the following year. A lottery held at the last minute before the race determines the final three who will make up the ten for the race.

I was there at the July 1988 Palio. I lived in Siena at the time, and naturally, I cheered for my district, the Contrada del Istrice (The Porcupine Contrada). I remember all the tension that filled the city for weeks before the race. The city staged some small public concerts to try to calm all the rivalries and strong feelings. I stood with the locals in the center of the square. I could barely see the race. I remember that when the race was over, and my contrada was among the losers, people all around me burst into tears and began sobbing uncontrollably.

The passions of the old medieval city states still run high in Italy.





Banner of the Contrada del' Istrice

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Gothic Art

Monastery Church of Saint Denis, west front, Paris






Monastery Church of Saint Denis, ambulatory, Paris






Chartres Cathedral, France






Jamb statues from the west front of Chartres Cathedral






Christ of the Apocalypse, tympanum sculpture from the west front of Chartres Cathedral






Martyr Saints, jamb statues from the south portal of Chartres Cathedral






Interior of Chartres Cathedral






North Rose Window in Chartres Cathedral







Reims Cathedral, exterior






Reims Cathedral, interior






Amiens Cathedral







Amiens Cathedral, interior






Beauvais Cathedral





Beauvais Cathedral, interior





GOTHIC ART

Monastery of Saint Denis
Abbott Suger
ribbed vault
rose window
cathedral
Chartres Cathedral
--jamb statue
--flying buttress
--bourgeoisie
other cathedrals
--Reims
--Amiens
--Beauvais


Read Chapter 13


The Bells of Chartres Cathedral

Islam



The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem







Interior of the Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain







Domed ceiling in the Alhambra, Granada, Spain


ISLAM

Muhammad
Quran
Mecca
The Mosque
--qibla
--sahn
--minaret
--mihrab
calligraphy

Chapter 11


The Adnan, or the call to prayer in Istanbul. What you are hearing is a call and response between two of the six minarets of the Ahmediye or "Blue Mosque".  You get a glimpse of Haghia Sophia at the end of the clip.



Tuesday, March 8, 2011

Byzantine Art



The Church of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), Byzantine





Interior of Hagia Sophia







Christ in Heaven with Saint Vitalis, mosaic in San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy




The Emperor Justinian and His Court, mosaic in San Vitale


BYZANTINE ART

Constantinople
Byzantine Empire
orthodox
Emperor Justinian
symbolic form
mosaic

Early Christian Art


Dura Europos Synagogue, Jewish art




Ceiling paintings in the Catacomb of Marcellinus, Rome



The Good Shepherd, catacomb painting, Rome





A Basilican Church, Santa Sabina, Rome



A circular martyrium church, Santa Costanza, Rome



EARLY CHRISTIAN ART

Jewish art
--synagogue
catacomb
Emperor Constantine
basilican church
--apse
--nave
--aisles
martyrium church
--ambulatory

Read Chapter 10